Aquatic Respiration Project
Have you ever sat down and watched fish in a tank or in a pond? Did you ever watch how the fish breathes? We, often call the flaps on either side of the head, gills, but those aren’t really the gills at all; they’re operculum. The gills are actually underneath those flaps and are responsible for pulling the oxygen out of the water so that the fish can breathe! When a fish opens its mouth, it pulls the water into its body and expresses that water through the gills and out of the “vents” called the operculum. The gills take the oxygen out of the water and spread it through the fish’s body so that it can survive underwater. Just like us, the fish breathes out carbon dioxide so when the fish exhales, that’s what goes back into the water. Fascinating!
What you’ll be doing for this experiment is determining whether or not a fish’s respiration changes in response to changes in its environment.
How Do Fish Breathe Underwater?
Items that you will need:
2 (two) identical fish containers or bowls
2 (two) goldfish. One large goldfish and one smaller goldfish. (Please make sure, before you buy any fish that you are prepared to keep them or find them a good home.)
1 (one) large plastic bowl (clear)
2 (two) 1/2 cup measuring cups
Directions for Project:
1. Fill the goldfish bowls with lukewarm water. (or desired temperature for your species of fish)
2. Place one fish each into the two identical bowls.
3. Start with the smaller fish. Set your stopwatch for 1 minute. Count the number of times you see the small fish breath within that minute. It’s important to be as consistent as possible so choose one of the two ways to watch how many times the fish breathes in one minute. You can either count how many times the fish opens its mouth or count each flap of the operculum. Do this three times and calculate the average. Write down the number of breaths.
4. Repeat step 3 for the larger fish.
5. For the next step, add the proper amount of water conditioner in half of a cup of water and pour the mixture into the bowl of the small fish. Set your stopwatch for one minute and count how many breaths the fish takes. Write down the number of breaths as well as any behavioral change.
6. Repeat process with the larger fish.
7. Fill up the large clear container with cold water. Place the fishbowl inside the cold water. (set the fishbowl itself into the container of water. Don’t mix the water from the large container and the fishbowl. Do not empty the fishbowl into the large container.)
8. Using a thermometer, take the temperature of the water that’s inside the large container and write it down.
9. Add ice cubes to the large container.
10. Again, count the fish’s breathing, per minute, until the temperature on the thermometer stops changing.
11. Repeat the process with the larger fish. (remember to replace the water inside the large container with more cold water.)
12. On a line graph, chart your findings. Use the horizontal line should be the number of times that the fish breathes per minute and the vertical line should indicate the temperature of the water.
Is there a connection between the fish’s breathing rate and the temperature of the water?
Fish breathe more when they are in warm water. Their breathing slows down when the water is colder. Fish also breathe faster when they are scared or excited. A smaller fish breathes more times per minute than a larger fish.
THE DENSITY DRINK
To understand the tricky concept of density, you should drink it. Generally, density is fascinating. It becomes cool when you make it into a tasty, healthy beverage, which you can share with the entire class as you explain.
What you need:
• Various juices with different levels of density. [In juices, the density is measured by the amount of fruit or sugar inside it. More sugar in the fruit means that the fruit is denser. Avoid getting canned or powdered fruits. They will not work well in this experiment because they will be mostly made up of water. Do a little trial to find out which natural fruit juices are denser and more colorful than the others.]
• A turkey baster or eye dropper
• A tall, narrow glass [A taller glass makes it easier to separate the levels of density.]
How you do it:
1. Before starting the experiment, you should choose which juices are denser. From your selection, you should form a hypothesis on how your drink’s density will become. Check the juices and see their water and sugar contents.
2. Find out the least dense of all your fruit juices. Do this, so that you can display the various levels of density of all the juices you selected.
a. Get your narrow glass and fill it to about 2.5 centimeters or an inch high.
b. With your dropper or turkey baster, drop another juice onto the inner side of the glass, so that it runs down slowly toward the first juice you poured.
c. See if your second juice settles below or above the first juice.
d. Move on to the next juice, and the next.
3. Keep in mind that the juices that settle at the bottom of the glass is the densest juice. The one that rests on top of the others is the least dense of all.
4. The moment you have determined the densities of your juices, start pouring your juices into another narrow glass with the use of your baster or dropper.
5. Enjoy your density drink.
Take note that the density in liquids shows you the amount of mass or atoms in each volume. If you have 200 ml of plain water in one cup and 200 ml of sugar water in another cup, the sugar water will be heavier. The sugar molecules make the sugar water denser because they disperse throughout the water molecules.
[Link: https://sciencebob.com/a-density-experiment-you-can-drink/ ]
Hey guys & gals …
Here’s a periodic table that you can use for your classroom studies and homework assignments.
Yes, I know there are a bunch out there, but this is one you can print out and use as you need.
Just right click and save it to your desktop or, go to the top of your browser and choose FILE and then PRINT in Firefox or in Chrome, choose the three small dots on the right hand side and then choose print.
7 Safety tips for Science projects
Science projects are instrumental in helping a child learn and understand the wonderful world of science. However many wonder if they are safe as science projects are associated with chemicals and substances which may irritate eyes, be harmful if ingested or maybe even cause an explosion. While possible, these issues can be avoided by following these 7 safety tips for science projects.
- Choose the right projects. Don’t choose a high school project for an elementary school child or projects which your child doesn’t have skills for. It’s always better to play safe, start small and move to the next level once your child masters easier projects.
- Carefully read and follow instructions as they protect you and your child. While it’s possible to tweak instructions, use your common sense!
- Wear necessary safety equipment like protective eye wear while using the saw or mixing chemicals, and gloves for the same reason or even if you are working in the garden for a science experiment out there.
- Don’t take shortcuts or mix chemicals whose reactions you are unsure of. Find out more about chemical reactions on the internet or the local library before attempting the project.
- Precaution is always better so (and common sense prevails here), keep a fire extinguisher and a first aid kit nearby before starting your project to tackle minor fires and accidents like scraped knees or slivers. Of course, if it’s anything major, do call 911 or the nearest emergency services!
- Don’t make the mistake of tasting or smelling chemicals. It’s better if you have running water nearby while handling chemicals so that you can immediately wash your hands if you spill something on yourself. Flush your eyes for at least 20 minutes if some chemical enters your eyes, and visit the nearest emergency room.
- Lastly, it’s better to have an adult present while doing science projects. Explain the project, safety measures needed and what should be done in emergencies.
Remember, safety is top priority while doing science projects. Don’t attempt any project if you are not sure how safe it is as it’s not worth taking unnecessary risks with your child!
Here are a couple recommendations for reasonably priced safety equipment, in case you need some …
How do Temperature and Wind affect Evaporation?
Clouds form in low pressure zones because as hot air rises it carries moisture with it. This moisture is called water vapor and as it cools it forms droplets of water that join together and cause clouds. Most of the water vapor comes from water on earth evaporating and rising with the air. What are some of the things that cause evaporation? How do wind and heat affect how fast water evaporates? This experiment explores the effects of wind and heat on evaporation.
- 4 kitchen sponges (all the same size)
- Desk lamp or trouble light with an incandescent light bulb (or any bulb that produces heat)
- An electric fan
- Measuring cup
- A journal to record your findings
- Write down your predictions about which sponges will dry faster and why you think so.
- Take two of the kitchen sponges and pour exactly the same amount of water on each (make sure that you use enough to completely soak the sponges).
- Place one of your sponges directly under the desk light (or trouble light) and turn it on with the light source around 8 to 10 inches above the sponge.
- Place the other sponge somewhere nearby, but away from the heat source.
- Take the other two sponges and repeat step 1.
- Place one sponge in front of an electric fan and turn it on.
- Place the other sponge away from the fan at room temperature.
- Check on your sponges periodically and record how they are drying. When a sponge is dry, record which sponge dried first and how long it took. Keep checking on the other sponges and record your findings as they dry.
Which sponge dried first? How long did it take? Did heat or wind cause the sponge to dry more quickly? Were your predictions right?
Demonstration of How Osmosis Works
Osmosis is a process in which different concentrations of solutions move through semi-permeable membranes. The transfer occurs from the highest concentration to the lowest. Osmotic pressure is a term used to explain the force with which the molecules transfer from the solution of higher concentration into the solution of lower concentration. Osmosis occurs throughout nature and one example is plants absorbing nutrients through their roots.
This experiment will demonstrate how the process of osmosis works by using distilled water and a water/sugar solution. The experiment will require about 10 minutes of set-up time and 3 to 4 hours to observe the results.
- A beaker or a transparent bowl (glass or plastic)
- Concentrated sugar solution (Fill a bowl with 2 cups of warm water and add as much sugar as will easily dissolve)
- Distilled water
- A thistle funnel (a glass funnel which has a calibrated, long tube). Any transparent funnel will work
- Some form of semi-permeable membrane (parchment paper works well)
- Twine or a twist tie (from a bread bag) to secure the membrane to the funnel
- A small clamp to hold the funnel in place
- Food coloring (optional). The food coloring will make it easier to see when the transfer begins to take place
- Journal to record your findings
- Fit a piece of the semi-permeable membrane around the bottom of the funnel and use the twine or twist tie to secure it firmly.
- Fill the beaker ¾ of the way with the distilled water. If you chose to use food coloring, add a few drops to the beaker and stir.
- Turn the funnel so that the covered portion is at the bottom and then fill the funnel about half way with the sugar solution
- Immerse the covered end of the funnel in the beaker of sugar solution making sure to leave a gap between the covered portion of the funnel and the bottom of the beaker.
- Clamp the thistle funnel in an upright position so that it isn’t resting against the bottom of the beaker.
- Use a marker to mark the level of the liquid in the thistle funnel’s tube and allow your experiment to sit for a few hours.
When filling the beaker and funnel, the beaker can be filled as far as ¾ full, but enough room must be left in the funnel for the liquid level to rise during the course of the experiments.
Check on the experiment every hour or so and record any difference in the liquid level of the funnel.
You should notice that the liquid level in the funnel is slowly rising and that the membrane covering the bottom looks as if it is being sucked into the tube of the funnel. The rising level of liquid in the funnel is due to the movement of the distilled water (lower concentration) into the tube of the beaker filled with sugar water (higher concentration).
A simpler form of this experiment is to slice a potato about into ½ inch thick slices and add a slice to a cup of very strong salt water and another to a cup of plain, distilled water. The potato slice in the salt water will become limp and wilted after a few hours while the slice in the plain water will remain crisp. This is because the liquid from the potato slice in salt water gradually transfers to the area of higher concentration while the potato slice in plain water gradually absorbs water from the cup into itself.
Crop Cloning Science ExperimentIf you are looking for a science experiment that is easy, cheap, and doesn’t take a ton of effort, this is a great choice. It takes a couple weeks to do it right, so you can’t wait until the night before to toss your project together, but it’s well worth planning ahead.This science project shows how certain edible plants can be “cloned” and grown over and over. These principles are well known in the farming and agriculture community, but not well known elsewhere, so they can really impress others and take them by surprise.Potential Questions for this ProjectHow can certain crops be cloned?What parts of the plant are best for cloning?How can cloning benefit the agriculture community?Step 1: Choose Your CropThis project can be done with a variety of crops, and you’re welcome to use more than one if you want to step up the level of complication. Some of the most common crops used are cabbage, celery, and potatoes. Any crop that can be replanted after taking a cutting from it.Step 2: Plant the CropLet’s use cabbage as an example for this project. If you were going to do your project on what parts of the plant are best for cloning, you would do something like plant a leaf from the outside of the head of cabbage, a leaf from near the core, and then cut the core into three pieces (top, middle, and base.) Then you would also plant the three pieces of the core, and document which piece(s) actually sprouted and began growing a new plant.Certain parts of plants contain a type of tissue referred to as “meristem.” This is the tissue that creates new growth. So you can use this version of the experiment to show which part of a head of cabbage contains this tissue.Obviously you can alter this project a bit if you want to use celery or potatoes.Step 3: Collect the EvidenceMake sure that you are writing down everything that you do, and that you are clearly labeling all the pots or jars with which pieces of the plant you have put into them. Even if something doesn’t seem to work, document it, since this could turn out to be important later on.Taking photos of everything is also recommended, especially if this is for a science fair. You want to be able to show how you came to your conclusions!Other OptionsThere are many directions you can go with similar projects, making it easy to customize this to your comfort level. One option might be to try growing a plant such as cabbage from a seed, alongside a cloned plant from a cutting in order to show the difference in growth speed and development. This is a great project to show why cloning is a great option for rapid production of quality plants.At the end of this experiment, you should have some healthy new plants growing from the core of the original. These plants have the same DNA, and thus are clones. This is a fascinating and different project that you can do to “wow” your science teacher, or just to start your own fun clone garden at home.
Sometimes You Just Need A Project, Fast
Ok, we know we have some pretty good science projects on our site right now, but once in a while, if you are anything like my kids were … the report is due tomorrow and “Johnny or Sally” forgot to tell you about it until just now. Sound familiar?
Anyway, yes – science experiments can be a fun and exciting way to learn with your kids, but this project is due soon and you need something easy and fun to do right now!
Enter 24 Hour Science projects guides. It is not free, and we do make a couple bucks allowing them to sell their products on our site, but fair is fair. This is an emergency … no?
Fear not. Years of experience have been put into their material, and we recommend it without issue. So if you don’t have time to work through some of our projects, we think you’ll be happy giving these a try.
Here’s what you get if you decide to take a look at the opportunity …
A 24 Hour Science Projects guide that has super science projects for your kids with step by step instructions on how to complete them all the way to the end.
They are centered around middle school student projects, but still detailed enough for science project submission if you need to do that. And they are both fun and impressive.
Check out their projects today Right Here and get started having fun … oh … and getting that assignment done quick!
1 Black Light (easily purchased at Walmart or online)
1 Bottle of Tonic Water OR 1 Highlighter Marker
A Dark Room
(If you chose a highlighter over the tonic water you will need a small glass with a small amount of water. Make sure that it is a clear glass.)
1. If you chose to use a highlighter, ask your parent or guardian to carefully break the pen open. Remove the felt from the marker and place it into the glass holding the water. Let the highlighter soak in the water for a few minutes. You can choose to leave this highlighter felt in the water or you can then remove it.
2. Take the glass of water into a dark room.
3. Turn on the black light and shine it near the glass of water. The water should be illuminated.
The ultraviolet light that is being emitted from your black light excited the phosphors within the water. The dye in the highlighter and tonic water have phosphors in them. This is what is causing your water to glow under the UV light. The UV light is light that we cannot normally see. The phosphors pick the light up and allow you to see the ultraviolet light. This is why the water is glowing! Did you know that a black light is also used in forensic science? Ultraviolet light helps catch bad guys! It’s pretty cool!
There are quite a few different types of luminescence. Fluorescence is used in this particular experiment and will only glow when the black light is shining on it. Phosphorescence has a lasting glow even when the black light is not shining on it. Chemiluminescence is used in such things as glow sticks. Bioluminescence is when living organisms glow! You can use this experiment in a multitude of different demonstrations.